Creative Biostructure has established a novel Mempro™ Liposome platform in recent years. While the liposomes in medical and pharmaceutical studies have been used as model membrane systems to develop several drug and reagent delivery systems. In addition to the various medical and pharmaceutical applications, the use of liposomes in agriculture systems is another major application of liposomes. Liposomes also have been used to investigate the solutes transportation mechanism across the cellular membranes, to explicate the activity dynamics of toxin and antimicrobial, to study the actions of pesticides, and to transport therapeutics substances to farm animals.
Figure 1. Illustrations of the AChE-based inhibitor liposome bioreactor: (a) The enzyme and pyranine were encapsulated into liposomes as entrapments; (b) Membrane-embedded porins faciliate the free transport of substrate and pesticide into the liposomes; (c) After incubation of the sample, The sensitive pesticides analysis was done in this AChE/liposome biosensor; (d) After incubation, the substrate was added and the inhibition reaction was monitored over time. (J. Yan, et al., 2013)
Pesticides, while mainly targeted to the plant antagonists such as insects, often show activity towards mammals such as humans. Since many insecticides inhibit acetylcholine esterase in the nervous system, the potential for toxicity to humans from these compounds has led studies of pesticide toxicity on species other then the target organism. DDE (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), a metabolite of DDT (dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane), was proved to have the ability of enrichment in PC liposomes. DDE prefers to target the lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions around the hydrophobic core, reducing the membrane cooperativity.
Melittin, a bee venom, has shown to be extremely toxic due to its membrane lytic capability at very low concentrations (1 melittin molecule per every 10,000 molecules of phospholipid are sufficient to induce lysis). The long range perturbation capability of melittin likely represents one of the primary modes of action for the polypeptide together with its ability to enhance fluctuations in the packing of phospholipids as liposomes.
Veterinary applications for liposomes have also been investigated as well. Scientists have confirmed the hypotheses that horses can produce pulmonary intravascular macrophages. Test horses were injected with PC/phosphatidylserine (PS)/Cholesterol liposomes labeled with Indium (111In) and containing a copper phthalocyanine dye (blue) at a concentration of 10 μM in saline buffer. The blood pressure of both non-anesthetized and anesthetized horses injected with the liposomes greatly increased and retention of liposomes in the lungs was high. Furthermore, increased efficiency of drug delivery following encapsulation have been confirmed for animals as human pharmacokinetic and pharmaceutical studies shown.
Besides agricultural industry, Creative Biostructure has also provide various applications based on our magic Mempro™ Liposome Technology, including cosmetics, food industry, drug delivery, cancer therapy, and gene therapy, etc. Please feel free to contact us for a detailed quote.
J. Yan, et al. (2013). Acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on assembly of multiwall carbon nanotubes onto liposome bioreactors for detection of organophosphates pesticides. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 105: 197-202.
H. Guan. et al. (2012). The novel acetylcholinesterase biosensors based on liposome bioreactors–chitosan nanocomposite film for detection of organophosphates pesticides. Food Research International, 49: 15–21.
T. M. Taylor, et al. (2005). Liposomal Nanocapsules in Food Science and Agriculture. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 45:587–605.