Creative Biostructure has rich experience in the comprehensive membrane protein production, scientists from Creative Biostructure can offer customized Mempro™ GLA-domain protein production services using detergent-free expression system.
Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic (GLA) domain is a protein domain and proteins containing this domain are named as GLA proteins. Calcium ions are bound by the GLA domain through chelating them between two carboxylic acid residues. These residues belong to a region which begins at the N-terminal extremity of the mature form of GlA proteins, and that leads to a conserved GlA-x(3)-GlA-x-Cys motif discovered in the middle of the domain. Moreover, this domain is probably crucial for substrate recognition by the carboxylase. The 3D structures of some GlA domains have been figured out, besides, calcium ions are essential for the GlA domain to fold properly. Several human GlA-containing proteins (GlA proteins) have been characterized, such as the blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X, the factor X-targeting protein Z and the anticoagulant proteins C and S.
Figure 1. Overall structure of X-bp and XGD1-44 complex. (Biochemistry, 2001)
Creative Biostructure has rich professional experience in high quality GLA-domain protein production using detergent-free membrane protein expression system, we can perform various strategies for Mempro™ detergent-free protein production, including:
With the rapid progress of nanodisc technology, our capacity to learn and comprehend the functionality of membrane proteins has gained a big breakthrough. Nanodiscs are being used to study isolation, purification and solubilization of membrane proteins, also it’s an advanced tool to learn interacting companions of membrane embedded molecules.
Amphipols are a new class of surfactants, they are synthesized by forming amide bonds between octylamine and, somewhile sopropylamine. Amphipols may be typically used in biophysics and biochemistry by the physicochemical properties of amphipols cut, which is based on the wide resources of polymer chemistry.
SMALPs are disc-like structures including a protein in a lipid bilayer, parceled by the amphipathic styrene maleic acid polymer (SMA). Compared with nanodiscs, bicelles and amphipols, the most significant advantage of SMALPs is that there is no need to extract proteins from membranes with possibly destabilising detergents.
With our leading detergent-free expression system and experience for hundreds of successful cases, Creative Biostructure guarantees unparalleled services in GLA-domain protein production.
Creative Biostructure provides other various Mempro™ membrane protein production services. Please feel free to contact us for a detailed quote.
Sunnerhagen M, Forsén S, Hoffrén A M, et al. Structure of the Ca2+-free GLA domain sheds light on membrane binding of blood coagulation proteins[J]. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 1995, 2(6): 504-509.
Soriano-Garcia M, Padmanabhan K, De Vos A M, et al. The calcium ion and membrane binding structure of the Gla domain of calcium-prothrombin fragment 1[J]. Biochemistry, 1992, 31(9): 2554-2566.
Postis, V., Rawson, S., Mitchell, J. K., Lee, S. C., Parslow, R. A., Dafforn, T. R., . . . Muench, S. P. (2015). The use of SMALPs as a novel membrane protein scaffold for structure study by negative stain electron microscopy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 1848(2), 496-501.