Based on the comprehensive protein engineering platform established through years of experiences, scientists form Creative Biostructure provides custom Mempro™ immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) protein production services using virus-like particles.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) can simulate the native virus, but are non-infectious due to they do not have any viral genetic materials. VLPs are seclf-assembly multiprotein structures, which are popularly used in the field of vaccinology. VLPs are commonly derived from the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Recently, virus-like particles carrying conformationally-complex membrane proteins (termed as lipoparticles) have been applied for integral membrane protein production. Lipoparticles can incorporate a wide range of structurally intact membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels.
IgSF proteins possess a structural domain termed immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, which is composed of 70-100 amino acids. Ig domain has a sandwich-like structure formed by two sheets of antiparallel beta strands. In addition, Ig domain can be classified as IgV, IgC1, IgC2, and IgI. It is reported that Ig domain is involved in diverse cellular functions. The biological function of Ig domain is to form a rod-like structure and to bind with other proteins make them ideal for cell surface receptors and cell adhesion molecules.
Figure 1. The structural model of Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor. (Wikpedia)
Virus-like particles can be used for a variety of applications, including:
Creative Biostructure can provide high-yield IgSF proteins in the stable, highly purified and native-conformation state. Lipoparticles can be generated from bacterial cells, yeast cells, insect cells, plant cells and mammalian cells for IgSF protein production. Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, insect cells and mammalian cells are the most widely used tools for VLP production. For instance, we can obtain lipoparticles from mammalian cells by co-expressing the retroviral structural core polyprotein, Gag, along with a desired membrane protein. Gag core proteins self-assemble at the plasma membrane, where they bud off and capture target membrane proteins. Since the IgSF proteins within lipoparticles are derived directly from the cell membrane without mechanical disruption or detergents, the native structure and orientation of IgSF proteins are retained.
Creative Biostructure can provide other various Mempro™ membrane protein production services. Please feel free to contact us for a detailed quote.
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K． Natarajan, et al. (2015). Immunoglobulin superfamily. eLS, doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000926.pub2
S. Willis, et al. (2008). Virus-like particles as quantitative probes of membrane protein interactions. Biochemistry, 47(27): 6988-6890.
Y. Shimono, et al. (2012). Immunoglobulin superfamily receptors and adherens junctions. Subcell Biochem., 60: 137-170.