Creative Biostructure has rich experience in the comprehensive membrane protein production, scientists from Creative Biostructure can offer customized Mempro™ thioredoxin-like superfamily production services using detergent-free expression system.
Thioredoxin-like is a superfamily which consists of 23 families: Thioltransferase, PDI-like, Calsequestrin, DsbA-like, Phosducin, ArsC-like, Thioredoxin-like 2Fe-2S ferredoxin, DsbC/DsbG C-terminal domain-like and so on. Thioltransferase also named as glutaredoxin, is a low molecular weight, heatstable cytosolic enzyme which extensively distributes in bacteria, yeast, and animals. Its primary structure and thiol-disulfide exchange catalytic properties have been researched widely. Thioltransferase enables to catalyze reversible thiol-disulfide exchange reactions coupled with NADPH and glutathione reductase when GSH exists. The overall reaction system probably acts as an essential role in the regulation of enzyme activity and/or in maintaining a normal cellular thiol/disulfide ratio. Thioltransferase is inactivated by the alkylation reagents, iodoacetamide and iodoacetic acid, the process is achieved by reacting with a unitary sulfhydryl group at its active site.
Figure 1. Model of Grx2 activation in vivo. (PNAS 2005)
Creative Biostructure has rich professional experience in high quality thioredoxin-like superfamily production using detergent-free membrane protein expression system, we can perform various strategies for Mempro™ detergent-free protein production, including:
Nanodisc consists of an amphipathic protein called membrane scaffold protein (MSP), which is embellished versions of the major ingredient of HDL, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1). Nanodisc has been used to solubilize and functionally stabilize a number of membrane proteins, it can offer homogeneous discs with steerable stoichiometry of the incorporated protein.
Amphipols are soluble proteins that can keep membrane proteins soluble in water without common surfactants. Amphipols can be characteristically used in biophysics and biochemistry by the physicochemical properties of amphipols cut, which is based on the wide resources of polymer chemistry.
Using SMALPs for structure determination of membrane proteins is a new approach, with this approach, the gain and speed of protein extraction can be markedly increased. It’s demonstrated that SMALPs may be a significant tool for the research of membrane protein structure and function.
With our unparalleled detergent-free expression system and experience for hundreds of successful cases, Creative Biostructure guarantees best services in thioredoxin-like superfamily production.
Creative Biostructure provides other various Mempro™ membrane protein production services. Please feel free to contact us for a detailed quote.
Wells W W, Xu D P, Yang Y F, et al. Mammalian thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) and protein disulfide isomerase have dehydroascorbate reductase activity[J]. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1990, 265(26): 15361-15364.
Gravina S A, Mieyal J J. Thioltransferase is a specific glutathionyl mixed-disulfide oxidoreductase[J]. Biochemistry, 1993, 32(13): 3368-3376.
Davis D A, Newcomb F M, Starke D W, et al. Thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) is detected within HIV-1 and can regulate the activity of glutathionylated HIV-1 protease in vitro[J]. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1997, 272(41): 25935-25940.