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X-rays are the light radiation produced by the transition of electrons in the inner layer of atoms under the bombardment of fast-moving electrons. Vibrating electrons are the wave sources of secondary X-rays, whose wavelength and phase are the same as the incident light. Based on the periodicity of crystal structure, the scattered waves of each electron in the crystal interfere with each other and superimpose each other, which is called diffraction.
Bragg's Law can be applied to meet the diffraction conditions:
D is the crystal plane spacing, θ is the Angle between the incident X-ray and the corresponding crystal plane, λ is the wavelength of the X-ray, and n is the diffraction order, which means that diffraction occurs only when the optical path difference between the two adjacent crystal planes is n times the wavelength of the X-ray. The above equation shows that when the geometrical relationship between the crystal plane and the X-ray satisfies the above, the X-ray diffraction intensity will strengthen each other.
The optical path diagram of XRD is shown as follows:
XRD main uses:
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