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Creative Biostructure provides high-quality custom MemPro™ gene-to-structure services for fatty acid desaturases/hydroxylases.
Fatty acid desaturase/hydroxylase is essential enzymes in the process of fatty acid biosynthesis. It has been reported that the biological function of fatty acid desaturase/hydroxylase is in regulation of lipid metabolism. Hydroxy fatty acids are uncommon fatty acids that are incorporated into seed triacylglycerols in some species of plants, such as Ricinus communis (castor) and Lesquerella fendleri. CFAH2 and LFAH, the hydroxylase enzymes from castor and Lesquerella, respectively, are closely related to the plant oleate desaturase enzyme (FAD2), which converts oleate into linoleate. The oleate desaturase and hydroxylase enzymes are members of a large class of membrane-bound enzymes that are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Members of this family of soluble enzymes that includes fatty acid desaturases and hydrocarbon monooxygenases catalyze a similar array of oxidative chemistry. Most notably, these enzymes catalyze desaturation or hydroxylation reactions. These membrane-bound class of enzymes also possess two catalytically relevant iron atoms that can be ligated by the His residues. The occurrence of highly homologous desaturases and hydroxylases that use the same substrate presents a well opportunity to study the molecular determinants of catalytic specificity, e. g. desaturation and hydroxylation.
Figure. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase catalyze activity with the co-factor Fe2+ subunit.
Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD) has been thoroughly studied for its activity. It utilizes O2 and electrons from reduced cytochrome b5 to introduce the first double bond into saturated fatty acyl-CoA substrates (i.e., the insertion of a cis double bond at delta-9 position), which include palmitoyl-CoA and stearoyl-CoA. SCD has been detected in the fetal liver, lung and brain; in adults, the expression is high in adipose tissues while kept at a relative lower level in the brain and lung.
Steral-CoA desaturase gives rise to a mixture of 16:1 and 18:1 unsaturated fatty acids and plays an important role in lipid biosynthesis and the regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Additionally, it also helps to maintain the body energy homeostasis as it contributes to the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids, cholesterol esters and triglycerides.
Creative Biostructure has extensive experience in the overexpression, purification and characterization of integral membrane proteins. Creative Biostructure can provide custom MemPro™ membrane protein gene-to-structure services. Please feel free to contact us for a detailed quote.
D. Howling, et al. (1972). The specificity of fatty acid desaturases and hydroxylases. The dehydrogenation and hydroxylation of monoenoic acids. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 260(1): 10-19.
J. A. Broadwater, et al. (2002). Desaturation and hydroxylation. Residues 148 and 324 of Arabidopsis fad2, in addition to substrate chain length, exert a major influence in partitioning of catalytic specificity. J. Biol. Chem., 277: 15613-15620.