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With our expertise in membrane protein production, isolation, purification and crystallization, Creative Biostructure provides custom MemPro™ gene-to-structure services for integrins. We focus on the expression of membrane proteins with multiple systems with full functional analysis tailored to your needs.
Figure 1. An example of integrin-mediated signal transduction. (EMBO J., 2003)
Integrins are a large superfamily of cell adhesion receptors (also called transmembrane receptors) that plays an important role in the lower affinity attachment between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) or various ligands on other cell surfaces. In other words, intergrins are the molecules of heterodimeric cell adhesion that associate the ECM and the cytoskeleton (such as actin). Intergrins are noncovalent-linkage transmembrane αβ heterodimers, containing more than eighteenαand eight β subunit types in human capable of forming twenty-four different heterodimers. The integrin family in mankind has 24 members, which possess various combinations of 1 of 18 alpha- and 1 of 8 beta-subunits. Integrins have been identified in a variety of species such as mammals, chicken, zebrafish, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. The arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif is identified as a common binding sequence; however, individual integrins can also bind to specific ligands on other cells. Integrins are involved in intracellular signaling activated by the ECM (e.g., cellular shapes, movements of cells and cell-cycle progressions). The subunit of integrin can span the cell membrane and have a cytoplasmic domain of 40–70 amino acids. Integrins have two main biological functions, including attaching the cell to the ECM and transducing the biological signals from the ECM to the cell. However, it has proven that integrins are also involved in a large variety of other biological functions, such as immune patrolling, cell migration, and binding to cells by certain viruses (e.g. adenovirus, echovirus, hantavirus, and foot and mouth disease viruses). Creative Biostructure supplies a wide range of MemPro™ integrin products and custom production services to assist your integrin projects.
Creative Biostructure can offer various MemPro™ gene-to-structure services for membrane protein family, including the identification, isolation, purification, stabilization, and crystallization of membrane proteins of your interest. Please feel free to contact us for a detailed quote.
A. van der Flier and A. Sonnenberg (2001). Function and interactions of integrins. Cell Tissue Res., 305(3): 285-298.
C. Brakebusch and R. Fässler. (2003). The integrin-actin connection, an eternal love affair. EMBO J., 22(10):2324-2333.
Integrins. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.
Y. Takada, et al., (2007). The integrins. Genome Biol., 8(5): 215.